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Providing integrated trading products and logistics services to oil and energy market participants and clients in the world’s major markets

AME Gate has unmatched expertise in securing the most advantageous solutions for moving oil. The expertise in supply chain management frequently enable us to outbid competitors, secure oil tenders and ensure high standards of supply and service for our customers.

About Metals

Lead: Pb, Atomic Number 82
» Aluminium: Al, Atomic Number 13
» Copper: Cu, Atomic Number 29
» Zinc: Zn, Atomic Number 30
» Nickel: Ni, Atomic Number 28
» Tin: Sn, Atomic Number 50
» Gold: Au, Atomic Number 79
» Silver: Ag, Atomic Number 47
» Platinum: Pt, Atomic Number 78
» Palladium: Pd, Atomic Number 46

Lead: Pb, Atomic Number 82
Heavy, soft and toxic, lead is a bright bluish white when freshly club, tarnishing to a dull grey. Its principal usage is in batteries, but is also used as a roofing material, and to a lesser degree in solder, pewter and as ammunition. Lead is the most re-cycled of all metals with some 57% of annual production of 8.6 million tonnes coming from secondary sources. Lead is traded on the LME.

Aluminium: Al, Atomic Number 13
Non-magnetic, shiny and white, Aluminium is the most abundant metal in the Earth's crust (approximately 8% by mass). Its strength, light weight and resistance to oxidation make it very useful in the packaging, construction, aeronautics and automotive industries. It is second only to iron in terms of annual production, with global output in 2008 expected to total almost 42 million tonnes. The large amount of energy used in its production dictates that Aluminium smelters are usually sited close to hydroelectric projects or fossil fuel deposits. Aluminium is traded as an OTC and exchange cleared product on the London Metal Exchange (LME) 24 hours a day and also on exchanges in New York (NYMEX), Tokyo (TOCOM) and Shanghai (SHFE).

Copper: Cu, Atomic Number 29
Copper is extensively used in electrical wiring and transmission cables due to its high conductivity. Its other major uses are in plumbing and coinage. One of the first metals isolated by man, its name is derived from the island of Cyprus, where it has been mined since 3,000 BC. In 1996 the Sumitomo Corporation suffered the largest ever derivatives loss, $2.7bn, from its activities in the copper market. Global refined copper production is expected to total almost 19 million tonnes in 2008. Copper is traded on the LME, NYMEX and SHFE.

Zinc: Zn, Atomic Number 30
A bluish-white, lustrous metal which when applied as a coating to steel gives anti-corrosive properties. Beyond galvanizing it is used in die casting and when alloyed to copper forms brass. Global annual production of zinc is expected to total 11.8 million tonnes in 2008. Zinc is traded on the LME and also on the Shanghai Futures Exchange.

Nickel: Ni, Atomic Number 28
A hard, bright, silver-white metal that is malleable and ductile. First discovered in copper mines in the 18th century and initially believed to be an unsmeltable ore of copper, nickel has been listed on the LME since 1979. World production stands at approximately 1.5 million tons; the ore is mined in twenty countries across all continents. Nickel's resistance to corrosion and ability to maintain its physical and mechanical properties under extreme temperatures dictates its industrial usage. The majority of consumption (around 65%) is in the stainless steel sector and a further 22% goes to create various alloys and super-alloys. Nickel is traded on the LME.

Tin: Sn, Atomic Number 50
A malleable, silvery metal which resists oxidization, tin is used as a coating to protect steel and also in solder. When alloyed with lead it forms pewter and with copper it makes bronze. Tin is not widely produced. Most of the annual world production of almost 360kt comes from Bolivia, Peru, Malaysia, China and Indonesia. In 1988 the UK Government rescued the International Tin Council to the tune of $1bn when collapsing prices threatened the stability of western banking systems. This near disaster led to the establishment of the London Clearing House replacing principal to principal contracts. Tin is traded on the LME and on the Kuala Lumpur Tin Market.

Gold: Au, Atomic Number 79
A yellow, precious metal valued since prehistoric times for its property of neither oxidizing nor tarnishing and for its malleability and ductility. A means of exchange for at least 6,000 years gold occupies a unique position – neither exactly a commodity nor a currency. Annual fabrication demand is almost 2,800t whilst almost 30,000t (worth around $715bn) resides in central bank vaults. Gold is traded as an OTC product 24 hours a day by London Bullion Market Association (LBMA) members and also on NYMEX and TOCOM.

Silver: Ag, Atomic Number 47
A soft, white precious metal capable of a high polish, silver has the highest electrical and thermal conductivity of any metal. It is mined as a by-product of copper, lead, zinc and gold mining and its primary uses are in jewellery, photographic materials and specialist chemicals. Annual consumption is approximately 27,000mt with Mexico, Poland, Australia, Peru, Canada and USA being the world's main producers. Silver is traded as an OTC product 24 hours a day by LBMA members and also on NYMEX and TOCOM.

Platinum: Pt, Atomic Number 78
A white, heavy, precious metal made extremely valuable by its rarity and unusual tensile strength. Surpassing even gold in price, platinum's main use is in catalytic converters, with other main end-uses being jewellery, glass manufacturing, petrochemical refining, electrical contacts and in dentistry. The main producing countries are South Africa and Russia, which together account for 90% of global production of 6.5 million ounces. Platinum is traded as an OTC product by London Platinum and Palladium Market (LPPM) members and also on NYMEX and TOCOM.

Palladium: Pd, Atomic Number 46
A rare, silver-white precious metal resembling platinum in its chemical properties, palladium is more extensively used in catalytic converters and less so in jewellery. World demand of 7.0 million ounces is supplied by South Africa, Russia and North America. Palladium is traded as an OTC product by LPPM members and also on NYMEX and TOCOM.
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